An introduction to modern theories of the universe and its evolution. Topics include naked eye observations, the solar system, stars, galaxies, and cosmology. Emphasis will be placed on the scientific method and how we understand the universe in terms of basic physical principles. Laboratory.

**Mode of Inquiry:** Understanding the Natural World

**Offering:**Fall**Instructor:**Watkins, Kleinert

An introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics. This course studies the concepts and techniques required to measure, describe and predict the motion of particles and extended objects. Topics include kinematics of linear motion, forces and Newton's laws, gravitation, momentum, work, energy, rotational motion, angular momentum, torque, fluids, oscillations, temperature, heat, and thermal energy.

**Mode of Inquiry:** Understanding the Natural World

**General Education Requirement Fulfillment:** Quantitative and Analytical Reasoning

**Prerequisite:** MATH 141 (or concurrent enrollment)

**Offering:**Every semester**Instructor:**Staff

An introduction to electricity, magnetism, and optics. This course studies the concepts and techniques required to understand interactions between charged particles as well as light as an electromagnetic wave. Topics include electrical force, electric field, electric potential, capacitance, electric current, circuits, magnetic field, inductance, Faraday's law, electromagnetic waves, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. Laboratory.

**Mode of Inquiry:** Understanding the Natural World

**General Education Requirement Fulfillment:**Quantitative and Analytical Reasoning

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 221 and MATH 141

**Offering:**Every semester**Instructor:**Staff

A survey of the major developments in physics of the 20th century, as well as an introduction to more sophisticated mathematical and laboratory techniques. Topics include special relativity, the quantum nature of light, the wave nature of particles, the Schrödinger equation, atomic physics, molecules, quantum statistical physics, nuclear physics, particle physics and cosmology. Laboratory.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 222 and MATH 142

**Offering:**Fall**Instructor:**Watkins, Bigelow

A study of systems with a large number of particles through the methods of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Topics include temperature, heat, thermal equilibrium, equipartition theorem, ideal gas, simple two state systems, entropy, heat engines, free energies, phase transformations, kinetic theory, partition functions, quantum statistics, and blackbody radiation. Laboratory.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 223 and MATH 142

**Offering:**Alternate years**Instructor:**Bigelow

A study of classical mechanics developed by Newton and reformulated by Lagrange and Hamilton. Topics include vector kinematics and dynamics in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical form, two-body problem, oscillations, Lagrangian mechanics, non-inertial reference frames, coupled oscillation, rigid body motion.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 222 and MATH 249

**Offering:**Alternate years**Instructor:**Bigelow

A study of the mathematical theory of vibrations and waves as illustrated by mechanical and electromagnetic oscillations. Topics include: simple harmonic motion, forced vibrations and resonance, couple oscillators, wave equation for continuous systems, normal modes, and the superposition, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization of waves. Mathematical techniques such complex analysis and Fourier analysis will be discussed. Laboratory.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 222

**Offering:**Alternate years**Instructor:**Beilby, Watkins

A study of electromagnetism using vector calculus. Topics include static electric and magnetic fields in vacuum and matter, electrodynamics, Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic waves. Mathematical techniques using vector calculus, and other techniques such as solving boundary value partial differential equations will be discussed.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 222 and MATH 249

**Offering:**Alternate years**Instructor:**Kleinert, Watkins

This course focuses on the methods of conducting research in experimental physics. Important research skills covered are literature searches, experiment design and theory, laboratory techniques, communication of research through oral presentations and written material. The integration of basic physics concepts learned in pervious courses will be emphasized. The first part of the course focuses on electronics, computer data acquisition, use of advanced equipment and data analysis. The second part of the course focuses on completing several advanced experiments, which are related to current research in the department. The final part of the course focuses on the proposing and designing an independent project. Laboratory.

**General Education Requirement Fulfillment:** Writing centered

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 223

**Offering:**Spring**Instructor:**Bigelow, Kleinert

A mathematical development of quantum theory. The first part of the course focuses on solving the Schr-dinger equation in one, two and three dimensions. Further topics include the theory of angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, identical particles and quantum statistics, and time-independent perturbation theory.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 223 and MATH 249

**Offering:**Alternate springs**Instructor:**Watkins

This course focuses on a currently active research field in physics. Integration of fundamental concepts of physics will be applied to a specific topic such as astrophysics and cosmology, condensed matter physics, general relativity, and computational physics.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 223

**Offering:**Alternate springs**Instructor:**Staff

Individual programs of independent study of topics selected in consultation with faculty.

**Offering:**Every semester**Instructor:**Staff

Required Senior Year Experience for all resident Physics majors. Students prepare and carry out individual research projects under the direction of a departmental faculty member. The final product of the course is a written senior thesis and a formal oral presentation.

**Prerequisite:** PHYS 396

**Offering:**Fall**Instructor:**Staff