Smithsonian Fellowships and Internships
Official site: http://www.si.edu/ofg/fell.htm
Final Deadline: January 15, 2013 Some deadlines vary, check website
"As part of its mandate for "the increase and diffusion of knowledge," including the diverse ideas, skills, and cultures of our nation, the Smithsonian Institution pursues policies of equal opportunity and cultural diversity. Smithsonian fellowships and internships are awarded on the basis of these policies. Applicants are evaluated on their academic standing, scholarly qualifications, experiences, the quality of the research project or study proposed and its suitability to Smithsonian collections, facilities, and programs." ~Website
There are a number of Fellowships and Internships for graduates, postgraduates, predoctoral, and postdoctoral students.
Unless noted otherwise, all Smithsonian fellowships (graduate, pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, senior) opportunities are open to non-US citizens.
Visit the website for more information.