Mailbox T-______
Applied English for Linguistics
Summer 2009- J. E. Seibert -- Tokyo International University of America

Last name ______________ First __________________................ points ___ / ___

Applied English Syntax Terms: Quiz 1

A. In syntax, what do these abbreviations mean and are these lexical or non-lexical categories? Use may use your own example or choose from this list: hamburger, discuss, at, quietly, have, and, tall, a, very

  Meaning Lexical Non-lexical
(Nonlexical)
Example
1 N noun x   hamburger
2 Deg        
3 Con        
4 Adv        
5 P        
6 Adj        
7 Aux        
8 Det        
9 V        

B. Fill in the blanks with the best answer. Use each word only once.

head merge
specifiers phrase
specifier syntax
complement  

1. ___________________ is (a) the analysis of sentence structure, (b) the study of how we combine words into sentences, and (c) the rules and categories that create sentences in human language.

2. A ___________________ is a syntactic unit of one or more words. It's a unit of sentence structure between a word and a sentence.

3. A phrase must have a ___________________, which is obligatory (necessary). It may have a ___________________, and it may have a ___________________.

4. Determiners, adverbs and degree words are all ___________________. They make the meaning of the head more precise and clearer. They mark phrasal boundaries.

5. ___________________ is a syntactic operation that combines elements to create phrases and sentence. The word means "join together".

 

C. Make the best matches.

___ 1 PP a for example: for, and, or, and but
___ 2 substitution b a specifier of a noun
___ 3 complement c these specify an adjective or a preposition; for example, very, quite, and really
___ 4 AP d describes a system of organization with levels
___ 5 hierarchical e a syntactic constituent that gives information that is implied or expected by the head; it is usually another phrase
___ 6 determiners f these help make the meaning of a head more precise and clearer
___ 7 degree words g for example: the, an, those
___ 8 specifiers h replacing one thing with another; in syntax, replacing a single expression for a group of words to test for phrase structure
___ 9 conjunctions i adjective phrase
___ 10 determiner j prepositional phrase

D. What kinds of phrases are these? UNDERLINE the head of the phrase.

 
phrase
NP AP VP

 

PP

 

Ex. these students x      
1 at Willamette University        
2 over the bridge        
3 wait to study        
4 linguistics        
5 a trip to Seattle        
6 in Lausanne Hall        
7 very happy with the test results        
8 often sings during class        
9 almost in the van        
10 a story about the yearbook