AS201 Japan: Age of Gods/Kojiki Myths

Plain of High Heaven Takamagahara

Izanagi (Male) AND IZANAMI (Female) Deities

give birth to many deities, including the brother and sister:

Amaterasu-no-Omikoto and Susu-no-O (Sun Goddess and Storm God)

 

Ninigi-no-mikoto, Amaterasu's Grandson

Given 3 Sacred Treasures: Mirror, Sword, Jewels

and told to "Pacify the Land"

 

Ninigi's Grandson allegedly becomes Japan's first emperor, Emperor Jimmu or Jimmu tennô, as he is called later...but Jimmu is not historically verifiable;

 

and he definitely did not emerge as a ruler in 660 BC!!

660 BCE was still late Neolithic times in the Japanese archipelago--no agriculture, no large communities, no social stratification, no elites, no elaborate burial mounds--pretty much an egalitarian hunting, gathering, foraging socviety.

 

 

Perhaps Emperor Sujin is first verifiable ruler but most likely he ruled in the Third Century AD, 219-249, not 97-30 BC as official chronology would have it. As Kidder notes, "The construction of large mounded tombs in Japan is too coincidental with the break up of the Han dynasty (AD 220) not to be related. Some mound builders are undoubtedly among the new migrants, but without doubt, by the end of the Yayoi period, tribal groups had coalesced under security needs, the power of chieftans had become greatly inflated with land acquisitions and access to or control of metal resources, and the chieftans or their associates had gained stature by exercising their special relationship to the kami. This last was a view promoted by the rising professional class of diviners. Collections of tribes in the major population centers of north Kyushu, Izumo, Kibi, and the Kinki were under Yamato pressure to join the larger confederacy. The Wa then got their first chief among chieftans (Ôkimi), called Sujin tennô by later writers. All of this centralization of power set the stage for the building of the tombs. (J. Edward Kidder, Himiko and Japan's Elusive Chiefdom, p. 274) And later he writes: "Princess Yamato-totohi-momoso, the aunt of Emperor Sujin, the female shaman to whom the Hashikaka Tomb is attributed, fits the time period in my view." (281) So Kidder would place Princess Himiko in the thriving Makimuku community where the first mounded tombs were built and what must have been the most thriving politial commmunity of its day, as well as the hub of a substantial trading network. (Ibid.)

Gina Barnes fundamentally agrees with Kidder that the Makimuku and later Miwa courts were constituted on the basis of ritual authority, hence the role of a shaman priestess would be central. She concludes, as does Kidder, that probably the Yamatai location mentioned in the Wei Chronicles and the female ruler Himiko can be equated with Princess Yamato who was related to the Sujin line of rulers who built tombs in the southwestern Nara Basin, and is the person buried in the Hashihaka Tomb.

 

Ojin Tenno 270-310, some 20 years later, might be a better candidate for the earliest Japanese monarch; he might have been a renegade Puyo aristocrat who came over from Paekche or Koguryo and took over the Sujin line and moved its base from Kyushu to the Yamato Plain

or even

 

Yuryaku tenno from 456-479 AD or possibly even as late as

 

Keitai Tenno 507-531 is the first of the monarchs to rule at the Asuka Court or palace, an historically verifable site. Possibly, he came to power AFTER the early Japanese state had formed and it was hi-jacked by people with superior military technology and state-building experience...possibly an immigrant group from the Korean Peninsula.