Resource Page: Confucian Thought

K’ ung Fu-Tzu, AKA Kongzi. Leadership of the Confucian school centers around its foremost teacher, Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). Though not the founder per se, as the transmitter and true embodiment of the Confucian Way, "Kong the Master," the "supreme editor of Chinese culture," is without peer.

Confucian Teachings: Video

Confucius believed that the integrity of a person and their perseverance in answer to a call set the example for followers to emulate. His vision centered on respect children show to their parents (filial piety); the high regard given elders and lawful authority figures (loyalty); and an appreciation for learning, protocol (li or ritual) and ceremony. Confucian practice became the characteristic world view and practice of the Chinese people for over 2,000 years.

Practicality; here and now shied away from for absolute questions like the Afterlife. "If we don't know about Life, How can we Know about Death?" Meaning we had better concentrate on learning what is at hand, what we can get better at: harmonious relations among people.


Three Key Confucian ValuesFilial Piety, Ren or Humanity; and Li, Ritual:

Filial Piety and Reciprocity

Ren: (1:12 mins)

and 3rd, Li, Respect for Ritual: (2:37)



Some Key Passages from Analects:

Book IV

      • 5. Everyone wants wealth and rank, but can only get them in the right way. No one wants poverty and obscurity, but they cannot be avoided if there is no right way to do so. The implication of this passage is that there is only something morally wrong with wealth (or profit, Description: if it is obtained through violations of morality. Later Confucianism tended to regard profit as intrinsically immoral. Wealth through rank (Description:, however, earned through progress up the bureaucracy, was never regarded as improper. This all burdened China with a self-righteous but parasitic bureaucracy, which belittled and obstructed productive merchants and businesses. The ideals were fine, of peace and benevolence, but the results could be the horrors of foreign conquest (as with the Manchus) and of poverty and famine. China should not have been one of the poorest countries in the world in the 19th century, but it was.

      • 11. The "gentleman" thinks of virtue (te) while the "small person" (Description:, or "mean" person), thinks of the "soil," i.e. work, profit, or comfort.

      • 15. Important passage. According to James Legge, who translated the Analects in 1893, "This chapter is said to be the most profound in the Lun Yü." "One thread" that runs through Confucius' teaching: chung (Description: and shu (Description: Zhong is translated "loyalty," but this is more the Japanese meaning (chu, blind loyalty). The Confucian meaning is "conscientiousness," i.e. trying to do one's duty and one's best. Shu is regard for others, "consideration" or "reciprocity." Shu is defined at 15:23.

      • 24. Slow in word but prompt in deed. A universal virtue. (From:

Key Confucian Texts

The Five Classics:

1. I-Ching or Yijing 易經 ("Book of Changes")

The complementary and conflicting interactions of Yin and Yang energies describe the universe. Hidden interpretation, technique based on the study of members and ethical insights are all described. Constant self-exertion, inspired by the harmony and creativity of the universe, is necessary for wise persons.

2. Shu-jing 書經 ("Book of History/Documents")

This text compiles historical documents of the ninth to sixth centuries, B.C. It describes the political vision of Confucian thought, outlining an ethical foundation for humane government.

3. Shi-jing 詩經 ("Book of Poetry/Songs")

Common human feelings, expressed in some 300 poems and religious hymns from the early Chou Dynasty (1027-402 B.C.), comprise the Shih-ching.

4. Li Ji 禮記 ("Book of Rites")

Consciousness of duty pervades the ceremonial rituals collected in Li chi. A cooperative society, organized by four principle occupations--scholar, farmer, artisan, merchant--is the ideal. It is said that. "The Book of Rites mainly records and explains the etiquette code of Pre-Qin period .It takes the etiquette and music as the core, involving many aspects, such as politics, laws, morality, philosophy, history, sacrifice, art, daily life, calendars, and geography and so on. Therefore, it is the concentrated display of the politics, philosophies and ethic ideas of the Confucian in Pre-Qin time. The Book of Rites elaborates many profound ideas on study, education, life, metal and physical cultivation which are still inspiring and thought-provoking to the modern people.

Written in prose with concise but vivid language, some articles of The Book of Rites are of high literature value. Some essays adopt short but vivid stories to illustrate truths, some are well-structured; some inscribe profound thoughts into simple narration; some is good at psychological depiction. In addition, the book also collects a great number of incisive and profound philosophic proverbs and apothegms." (

5. Chunqiu 春秋 ("Spring and Autumn Annals")

This text emphasizes history and the significance of the collective memory in individual and societal identification.

6. 樂經 ("Book of Music") Lost

The Four Books. Xuzi (-A.D. 1130-1200) emphasized the Four Books: DaXue (大學), Zhong Yong (中庸), Lun Yu (論語), and Mengzi. Two chapters, originally from the Li chi, comprise books one and two of the four Books (the Daxue [great learning] and Chung Yung [Doctrine of the Mean].)

The Analects or Lun Yu (Edited Conversations) is known to most Western audiences as the Analects or recorded actions and saying of Confucius. Most of the twenty Analects books describe Confucius as he answers questions, discusses issues and lives his beliefs.

The Mengzi by Mencius systematized Confucian teaching, advocating study of the Classics, practicing moral disciplines and developing natural ying/yang energies.

Confucian Ethics 
The question, "What is the character of the social life Confucian education should engender?" addresses the ethical center of Confucianism. Historian of world religions, Huston Smith, specifies the following five terms which designate this heart of the Confucian ethical tradition.

Ren, Junzi, Li, Zhi and Yi alike are ethical/motivational topics, influential in the folk/Confucian tradition of the family, government bureaucracy, and village life especially.

1. Ren 仁. This basic virtue, as outlined in the Analects, signifies benevolence, humaneness and human-heartedness. Cultivating courtesy and unselfishness promotes the dignity of human life wherever it appears. Public displays focus upon diligence, steadfastness, and a magnanimity of heart which pursues a mission, that of redeeming the world through human effort. This sense of mission makes the world safer and more livable, improves the quality of life, and transforms society into a moral community. Jen is not only a humanistic objective, but also a profoundly spiritual goal of Confucian ethics.

2. Junzi 君子. This term refers to the mature, cultivated, humane person. It is the opposite of petty, mean-spirited individuals. A chun-tzu person aims to live by the highest of ethical standards. He/she seeks to answer, by action and attitude, the question "what can I do to accommodate others?"

3. Li 禮 (Ritual Cosnciousness, Norms of propriety, appropriate (ritual) behavior, ritualized roles and responsibilities, ritual propriety). Li finds its origin in religious ceremony and rite. Its broader meaning describes the way things are done. Attitude becomes as important as correct conduct. Manners, an order to behavior and family relations, honoring elders, and the concept of the golden mean, all describe Li. The family, still the single most important social institution in imparting ways of learning to be human, is the framework for establishing graceful interactions with others. It is the glue for social solidarity. Constantly returning to li, Confucius says, is the way to achieve ren (consummate virtue). When asked for specifics, he replied, "Do not look in a way which is not li, do not listen in a way that is not li, do not speak in a way that is not li, do not move in a way that is not li" (Analects 12.1). Confucius is suggesting that one should, in all circumstances, act with the attention and care characteristic of the performance of a sacred rite.

4. Zhi (知) Knowlede of what is right and wrong; what is moral and Fair. To "know" is to follow out a learned system of naming and evaluating, to be guided by a learned process of construing that we are taught when we learn a language.

5. Yi (義) Righteousness, Uprightness, appropriate conduct, a sense of appropriateness.

Three other very important notions are:

6. Filial piety Xiaojing 孝--relations encompassing not only children to their parents but generations to each other--is the underpinning for all other interactions. Cultivation of genuine feelings for parents and siblings--rather than estrangement and alienation between them--is the principle. This family/communal orientation also plays itself out in salvation schemes. Individualistic approaches are frowned upon. Family, society, country or the whole world must be included in such appeals. We see the depths of family devotion in death and grieving practices. After a parent dies, the child (son) may retire from public affairs, simplify living arrangements and devote himself to grieving for as long as three years. Li further expresses itself through the five relationships.




Older and Younger Brothers, and


7. Reciprocity (shu 恕)--

Zi Gong asked: "Is there any one word that can serve as a principle for the conduct of life?" Confucius said: "Perhaps the word 'reciprocity': Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you." (Analects XV:23)

The importance of reciprocity, and the mutual responsibility of one person for another, is essential to understanding the five basic human relations suggested by Confucius. Very prominent in the Confucian tradition is the idea of the five relationships between, if you take it according to Mencius, parent and child, minister and ruler, husband and wife, older and younger brother, friend and friend. The order of the five relationships is taken from that given by Confucius' most famous follower, the philosopher Mencius (active 372-289 B.C.E.) whose conversations were recorded in the book Mencius.

8. We might add an 8th idea which is important, the notion of Zhi (質) which is the natural or "native substance" of which a person is made, but it is not an innate human attribute. The individual acquires zhi through education (Chong, 2007, p. 1). Despite this definition that Zhi is not innate, it does have to do with character or with one's basic nature which is then improved by education or training. The meaning of zhi, as “native substance” or “basic stuff,” relates to the ‘building of substantial character traits’ the individual is cultivating through learning and practice (p. 18).  Zhi (質)is contrasted in the Analects with "cultural refinement" (文) [6.18] and the suggestion is that one has to have balance, a "perfect mix" between the two in order to create a Gentleman (君子). In 12.8 we see the question posed that if

All the noble man needs is to have his substance. Why should he need external refinement?


But the response is that

"Refinement is substance; substance is refinement! OR, "A Gentleman's Cultrual Refinement 'resembles' his native substance, and his native substance resembles his cultural refinement.


Again, suggesting how closely intertwined the two are. Obviously, you cannot refine something that is not there. So the Gentleman must have a character base from which to launch one's self-cultivation program; but without further refinement, how good would this base become? Not nearly what Master Kong would like to see.

Man as Social Being
Confucius builds his theory of society and government on the assumption that man is a social being always interacting with other human beings. Moral obligations to other people, and the imperative of public service, follow from this assumption.

He is never content with what he finds. His conscience impels him to try to rectify what is wrong in the world. And it is a sense of the moral conscience that he's got to be in the company of other men, whatever he is going to make of himself. It has to be in relation to human society. In the Confucian tradition, human relatedness is the primary given. Human beings exist in a social context. They learn from one another, they interact with one another.

The Approach & Teachings of Confucius

Confucius was solely focused on everyday concerns. He was indifferent to the big mysteries of existence such as the origin or the universe, god or the afterlife. His famous answers to this type of question were:

We do not yet know how to serve man, how can we know about serving the spirits?
We don't know yet about life, how can we know about death?

Humanism is the central feature of Confucianism, which revolves almost entirely around issues related to the family, morals, and the role of the good ruler. It stresses the need for benevolent and frugal rulers, the importance of inner moral harmony and its direct connection with harmony in the physical world. Rulers and teachers, according to this view, are important models for society: a good government should rule by virtue and moral example rather than by punishment or force. Filial piety and ancestor worship, which are old traditional Chinese values, are also part of the key components of Confucian doctrine.


Additional Background Information:

Kongzi or K'ung Fu Tzu (commonly pronounced Confucius in English) was born in 551 BCE in the state of Lu (modern day Shandong Province). He lived during the Zhou dynasty, and era known for its moral laxity. Later in life, he wandered through many states of China, giving advice to their rulers. He accumulated a small band of students during this time. The last years of his life were spent back in Lu, where he pobably researched and wrote The Spring and Autumn Annals.

His writings deal primarily with individual morality and ethics, and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers.

The Analects is a short collection of his discussions with disciples, compiled posthumously. These contain an overview of his teachings. Confucius presents himself as a transmitter who invented nothing and his greatest emphasis may be on study, the Chinese character that opens the book. In this respect, he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master. Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society, he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world. For almost two thousand years, the Analects had also been the fundamental course of study for any Chinese scholar, for a man was not considered morally upright or enlightened if he did not study Confucius' works.

In China, and some other areas in Asia, the social ethics and moral teachings of Confucius are blended with the Taoist communion with nature and Buddhist concepts of the afterlife, to form a set of complementary, peacefully co-existent and ecumenical religions. There are approximately 6 million Confucians in the world. About 26,000 live in North America; almost all of the remainder are found throughout China and the rest of Asia.

Confucian ethical teachings include the following values:

Li (禮): includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc. 
Xiao (愛): love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents 
Yi (義): righteousness 
Xin (信): honesty and trustworthiness 
Jen (仁): benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue 
Jung(忠): loyalty to the state, etc.

These bonds and practices are not only critical to a well-ordered society but provide a training ground for the effective development of a humane, flourishing soul. Critics sometimes describe the "three bonds"-- ruler over minister, father over son and husband over wife--as promoting despotic, autocratic, patriarchal, and male-chauvinistic practice. A Confucian response sees these bonds not as confining or limiting practices. Rather, when seen from a broader perspective, the patterns of social stability, maintenance of the social order, and a world at peace overcome particular frustrations of such hierarchical relations.

Wen (文) refers to the "arts of peace"--music, art, poetry, the aesthetic and spiritual aptitudes. The mark of a cultured person is the knowledge and appreciation of culture, breeding, and grace. The Analects record:

By poetry the mind is aroused; from music the finish is received. The odes stimulate the mind. They induce self-contemplation. They teach the art of sensibility. They help to restrain resentment. They bring home the duty of serving one's parents and one's prince. (XVIII:9)

Later Developments: Neo-Confucian Practice
The Neo-Confucian movement, developed in response to Buddhism, was dominant in East Asia from the twelfth to early twentieth century. It honed and perfected early Confucian thought.

Zhuxi (or Chu Hsi = joo shee, 1130-1200), with his School of Principle, saw a pattern running through all material. By practicing asceticism or moral discipline, followers could ascertain this inner design.

Wang Yang-ming (wahng yahng-ming, 1472-1529), another major neo-Confucianist, established the School of Mind. Innate knowledge, found within the mind, is the basis on which to view humanity, rather than pursuing external patterns.

A Third Wave Confucian movement seeks to explain the current economic revival in East Asia in terms of application of Confucian principles to the post-modern world. This school of thought seeks to outmaneuver competitors, based on superior self-knowledge and knowledge of others.

Harvard professor Tu Wei-ming discusses the impact of Confucian thought on the East Asian economy. After describing the economic growth taking place in East Asia, Dr. Wei-ming discusses the human factor involved in the process:

"What they [East Asian] have shown is that culture matters, that values people cherish or unconsciously uphold provide guidance for their actions, that the motivational structure of people is not only relevant but also crucial to their economic ethics, and that the life-orientation of a society makes a difference in the economic behavior of its people." ("Confucianism," pp. 216, 219, Our Religions.) (

******* A Brief Digression: Great Teachers

There are some similarities between two very influential teachers in history, Jesus of Nazareth and Confucius although Confucius preceded Jesus by almost 5 centuries. Both were founders of belief systems that endured for millenia and continue to influence millions today. Moreover, neither man left behind a definitive, self-composed narrative explication of their teachings that lays out their beliefs in a systematic fashion. Instead, all we have are texts, compiled decades, even centuries after their lives were over, which contain statements and ideas they were purported to have articulated. For Jesus there are the Gospels in the New Testament, as well as the Gnostic Gospels; and for Confucius, there is the Analects a book compiled by second and third generation of students, circulating widely only two centuries after Confucius' death. As Wikipedia notes, "Very few reliable sources about Confucius exist. The principal biography available to historians is included in Sima Qian's Shiji; but, because the Shujing contains a large amount of (possibly legendary) material not confirmed by other sources, the biographical material on Confucius found in the Analects makes the Analects arguably the most reliable source of biographical information about Confucius. Confucius viewed himself as a "transmitter" of social and political traditions originating in the early Zhou dynasty (c.1000-800 BC), and claimed not to have originated anything (Analects 7.1)." As far as biographical details about Jesus' life, much the same could be said; and surely, Jesus operated within the framework of his Jewish heritage. However, he might have been pushing for more reforms in Jewish law and theology than Confucius' claimed to be doing for Chinese philosophy. Finally, each belief system associated with these two individuals grew to have substantial institutional manfestations--the Confucian bureaucracy and the Catholic and later Protestant churches--that shaped and influenced Chinese and Western culture respectively. If comparisons between these two powerful thinkers and teachers is a subject that interests you, look here, here and here.

It is also intriguing to realize that the three great Greek philosophers, Socrates (469–399 B.C.E.), Plato (429–347 B.C.E.), and Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E) all came shortly after Confucius' time while the Buddha was born in India perhaps around 563 B.C.E.. This means that within a period of century and a half or so, some of the world's most important thinkers appeared. Jesus, of course, came along some 400 to 500 years later; and it may also be worth noting that among all of these thinkers, the one with the shortest life span and the fewest years of active teaching and spreading his ideas was Jesus, about whose life we only have a few details covering a brief three year period. It is said he began to teach at about age 30 and he was crucified perhaps 3 years later. All of the rest of these great teachers lived at least six or seven decades. The Buddha may have been about 35 years old when he experienced his moment of "enlightenment" sitting under the Bo Tree, putting him very close to the age of Jesus (33) when he died. How interesting would it have been if Jesus had lived another 30 or 40 years and was able to spell out his teachings more fully?

All we have of his teachings are fragments: Parables, stories and aphorisms and, according the biblical scholars who study his words carefully, probably 82% of the sayings attributed to Jesus were never actually uttered by him. Moreover, some of his more interesting utterances--which make him sound much more like a Daoist or Buddhist sage--were part of the Gnostic Gospels, like the Gospel of Thomas, which may have been older than some of the other gospels, and they were exlcuded from the texts formally accepted by the church. You could say they were suppressed which is too bad. Our own Atkinson Professor of Religious Studies, Stephen Patterson, studies these kinds of materials and he just published a new book called The Lost Way about Jesus' teachings. The book is described in this way: "In this rigorously researched and thoughtful study, a leading Jesus Seminar scholar reveals the dramatic story behind the modern discovery of the earliest gospels, accounts that do not portray Jesus exclusively as a martyr but recover a lost ancient Christian tradition centered on Jesus as a teacher of wisdom.

The church has long advocated the Pauline view of Jesus as deity and martyr, emphasizing his death and resurrection. But another tradition also thrived from Christianity’s beginnings, one that portrayed Jesus as a teacher of wisdom. In The Lost Way, Stephen Patterson, a leading New Testament scholar and former head of the Jesus Seminar, explores this lost ancient tradition and its significance to the faith.

Patterson explains how scholars have uncovered a Gospel that preceded at least three of those in the Bible, which is called Q. He painstakingly demonstrates how historical evidence points to the existence of this common source in addition to Mark—recognized as the earliest Gospel—that both Matthew and Luke used to write their accounts. Q contained a collection of Jesus’s teachings without any narrative content and without accounts of the passion, though being the earliest version shared among his first followers—scripture that embodies a very different orientation to the Christian faith.

Patterson also explores other examples of this wisdom tradition, from the discovery of the Gospel of Thomas; to the emergence of Apollos, a likely teacher of Christian wisdom; to the main authority of the church in Jerusalem, Jesus’s brother James. The Lost Way offers a profound new portrait of Jesus—one who can show us a new way to live." (See the publisher's website:

Patterson has also worked extensively on the Gnostic Gospels, one of which is the Gospel According to Thomas. As one source describes the Gospel of Thomas:

Exploring the Gospel of Thomas, we discover that Jesus believed the self and the divine to be identical and one. Furthermore, the Kingdom of Heaven was not somewhere off in the future but i“right here,” right now, all the time and one only needs to be awakened to this perfection. Is this at all like when Confucius talked about Ren, he replied that if desired it, "I will find that it is already here." (7.30)? Jesus, in this gospel, speaks of enlightenment, the same type that is taught by Shakyamuni Buddha, Shin teachers and Zen Masters. In addition, Thomas does not have a narrative story line but just 114 sayings attributed to Jesus, many of which are akin to Zen koans. Here, Jesus is never presented as Lord or Savior, but rather as a spiritual guide who is equal to his students. In addition, the Gospel of Thomas does not contain a supernatural virgin birth or the doctrine of the Virgin Mary.  It does not teach of original sin.  It does not mention Jesus’ crucifixion or resurrection.  It does not  teach Jesus’ death as a payment of debt to “atone” for humanity's sins.  It does not include any supernatural healings or miracles. It does not mention the so-called end-times or the wrath of God.  It does not mention salvation through faith in Christ. It does not exclude women.


Here is a small sample:

These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas recorded.

1. And he said, "Whoever discovers the interpretation of these sayings will not taste death."

2. Jesus said, "Those who seek should not stop seeking until they find. When they find, they will be disturbed. When they are disturbed, they will marvel, and will reign over all. [And after they have reigned they will rest.]"

3. Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the (Father's) kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the (Father's) kingdom is within you and it is outside you.

4. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."

5. The disciples said to Jesus, “Tell us how our end will be.” And Jesus said, “Have you discovered the beginning, then, that you now seek the end?  For where the beginning is, there the end will be. Blessed are those who will stand at the beginning, and they will come to know the end and will not taste death.


Some key figures in Confucianism:
We mentioned Mencius, 372-289 B.C.), or Mengzi, already; he systematized Confucius's teaching. Believing in the innate goodness of all people, he popularized the 'five relationships' (father-son, ruler-minister, husband-wife, old-young, friend-friend) concept.

Hsun-Tzu, or Xunzi, was another early leader in Confucian philosophy. Thinking all individuals were essentially evil, he promoted the cultivation of ritual as antidote to humankind's depravity. Two of his disciples, Han Fei and Li Ssu, became very prominent scholars in the School of Legalism and the latter the Premier of the Qin/Ch'in dynasty (221-207 BCE) . However, the association of Xunzi's pupils with the Qin dynasty proved in the long term to be disastrous for the place of Xunzi in Confucian history, for the Ch'in dynasty was a dictatorship which suppressed Confucianism and burn its books. During the Sung dynasty Xunzi's thought was declared heterodox, and has since that time been outside of the mainstream Confucian tradition.

Kong Decheng (b. 1920-2008), was a direct descendant of Confucius and resident of Taiwan, is a leading spokesperson for Confucian values.

Sunzi. The Sunzi is a Chinese classic on military tactics and strategy. It dates from the era 400-320 B.C. The Sun-tzu shows how superior mental attitudes can effect military/political change. Emphasis is on unsettling the enemy’s mind and upsetting his plans.

Confucian Beliefs 
" The fundamental concern of the Confucian tradition is learning to be human."
Reference:: The Sikh Philosophy Network (from Tu Wei-ming (in Our Religions, p. 141).

Three dimensions of the human condition--the self, community, and tradition--are expressed in Confucian spirituality.

Self-cultivation. A healthy body, mind-and-heart alert, pure soul and brilliant spirit, are seen as good for their own sake. This self-transformation draws resources from cultural tradition, a sympathetic society, the energy of nature and power of heaven. Confucius sought dignity for all humankind, a sense of respect for oneself and understanding of the humanity found in all. (See the Lonely Planet Survival Kit--China, p. 64.)

Tu Wei-ming, Professor of Chinese History and Philosophy at Harvard University, identifies three characteristics of the "human rootedness" of Confucian thought.

Cheng 誠 (juhng) designates the state of absolute quiet and inactivity, being sincere, authentic, real. One can be genuinely human without engaging in a flurry of activities.

Shen 神 (shen) signifies spirituality. Crucial Shen concerns are the "heavenly aspect of the soul" and its development.

Qi 気 (jee). Based upon the cumulative effect of self-transformation, Qi, an "originating power, an inward spring of activit, a critical point at which one's direction toward good or evil is set" can be identified and used to further 'flourish the soul.' (Tu Wei-ming in Our Religions, pp. 169-170.)

Community. The community is necessary for this self-transformation to occur. It broadens and deepens the self, expressing the fundamental integration of all segments of our world. Once rooted, the soul contributes to the four visions that identify the classic Confucian vision of the world. The four visions are:

1. ability to respond to the world in a poetic sense

2. social sense of ritual as means for verbal and non-verbal communication within the "human community"

3. historical ability to relate to the collective memory

4. politics as responsive and responsible to the whole community

(See Tu Wei-ming, in Our Religions, p. 195.)

Some Useful Websites:

Some other Aspects of Confucianism:

Tradition. Throughout their shared history spanning millenniums, the people of China valued harmony and mutual consensus rather than conflict and individual exertion. But during Confucius’ life, societal conflict, rather than harmony, was the norm. Believing there had been an earlier period of prosperity and peace in China Confucius advocated a return to the traditions and values of that earlier time. Or, at least, he held up a Golden Age in the past as a model for contemporaries to look to and emulate. "I Follow Zhou," he used to say, a reference to a model ruler known as the Duke of Zhou. These traditions--which maintained peace and social order--became the focus of Confucian thought.

Yin/Yang. Yin and Yang interact harmoniously. As part of this balance, traditionally men were associated with "yang," women with "yin." Yin displays qualities of darkness, cold, death , ghosts, graves and fear--often traits acquiring a negative status. The linkage of the feminine with "yin" seems to color women in this negative light as well. Over the centuries, such thought influenced practice towards them.

Family Filial Piety--the relations guiding children with their parents and past generations-- delegated responsibilities and importance to eldest sons. Two of the five relationships--father/son and husband/wife--promote social mores of male superiority. The woman’s status becomes one where she obeys and serves her parents, her husband and husband’s parents, and produces a male heir. ("Confucianism," in Our Religions, p. 214.)