日本語131 L4 Adjectives

Review: Ko/So/A/Do

Using ここ、そこ、あそこ、どこ?

Where is the library?

It is there.

It is over there.

It is here.

Where is the Post Office?

It is over there. etc.

My bookbag is there.

 

 

ADJECTIVES are words that DESCRIBE something or someone, e.g., large, small, new, old, etc. In Japanese, as in English, the Adjective can come BEFORE the Noun such as,

--the large house   大きいうち

--the small school

--the new hospital

--the old supermarket

Or, they can comed AFTER the Noun, probably at the end of the sentence:

--the house is large うちは 大きい です

--the school is small

--the hospital is new

--the supermarket is old

In Japanese, there are two main types of Adjectives:

 

I.い-Adjectives end in い combined with all "a, i, u, and "o" sounds BUT, notice, NO "e" + い combinations, so

きれい、ゆうめい are not い-Adjectives.

There are two characteristics of い-Adjectives

 

1. い-Adjectives are inflecting words, that is, they can change. When they appear before nouns, nothing is required between い-Adjectives and the Noun.

So, they can be directly "affixed" to the Noun:

大きい 大学、

ちいさい 学校、

ふるい かばん、

あたらしい ペン

たかい たてもの

とてもいい先生

When we have one Noun linked to another like 先生and ペン, we must have something in between

先生 and ペン; that something is a の. See Ch. 2, Note III, pp. 53-54.

But with い-Adjectives we do not need ANYTHING between the final い and the Noun.

 

2. Also, い-Adjectives can inflect into the negative form. How?

The rule is, drop the final い replace it withく

+ add the NEGATIVE FORM

ない です or ありません :

大きいーーー>大きく ありません/ないです 

ふるいーーー>ふるく ありません/ないです

あたらしいーーー>あたらしく ありません/ないです 

たかい ーーー>たかく ありません/ないです

 

Note a Variation: いい--->よいーーーよく ありません

 

II. な-Adjectives are the second type. They are adjectival in their meaning and function: they describe a situation or a noun.

But, unlike い-Adjectives, they DO NOT inflect. So...

1. Between な-Adjectives and a noun we DO need something.

Between Noun 1 + Noun 2 = we use の

わたしの うち= my house

大学の 先生 = the professor of the university

先生の ペン = Sensei's pen

 

But with な-Adjectives since we are not linking 2 Nouns, we use な instead of の. Think of it as maybe a "compromise": can't use の and can't use nothing so it's な by default.

So, we have:

きれいな 大学、

りっぱな 学校 

しずかな りょう、

ゆうめいな 先生

 

2.When な-Adjectives go into the negative form, we cannot use く+Negative form because we cannot inflect these Nominal Adjectivals so we must go with

きれい じゃ ありません just like any Noun = which by definition is an uninflecting word. 

e.g. 学生 じゃありません, 

先生 じゃないです 

それは ペン じゃないです。

 

So, we would negate a な-Adjective like this:

しずか じゃ ない = Not Quiet

りっぱ じゃ ありません =Not splendid

ゆうめい じゃ ありません = Not Famous

きれいな うち じゃない = a pretty house

 

We can remember that な-Adjectives are Nominal

Adjectivals hence "Na" becomes a mnemonic device.

とても is an "intensifying word" so it means "very"

so とてもいい = very good

とても 大きい = very big

 

あまり means Not Very so it must be used with a negative construction:

あまり ふるく ありません = It is not very old.

 

If we want to know the qualities of something, to know what kind of _____ it is, we ask 

どんな? = What Kind of?

どんな たてもの ですか。たかい/きれいな 

どんな大学 ですか。いい/ちいさい/たかい 

どんなペンですか。あかい/あおい/くろい