がが日本語132   L9

 

から = Reason

When used with verbs, you can use either polite ( ーます) or plain forms (-る/う)

 

時間がないから、行きません。(時間がありませんから、行きません)

 

With い-Adjectives, use nothing or です。

 

今日いそがしいから、ひるごはんは食べません。OR, いそがしいですから、

 

With Nouns or な-Adjectives, use です or だ .

 

学生だから、いつもべんきょうします。

 

 

 

English:   Because I have a test tomorrow I will study tonight.

 

あした テスト が あります から、こんばん べんきょうします。or

 

あした テスト が ある から、こんばん べんきょうします

 

So, as with ので, the Reason comes first in Japanese, then the Result or Consequence.

 

[Of course, we do say in English: I have a test tomorrow SO I will study tonight.]

 

 

How about the differences between から and ので?  Our textbook says that からinvolves one's personal opinion or judgment more than ので. Therefore,から may sound stronger, more opinionated while ので can be softer,more polite, especially in formal speech. I guess that ので is more objective, more factual, more impersonalhence is less assertive.

 

Reason                                                                   Result

 

I have homework.                                           Will not go out tonight.

 

I am busy.                                               Will not write a letter to my parents.    

 

Don’t have my part-time job today.                I am free.

 

Do not have a bike.                                Will go by bus.

 

Have a test today.                                  Did not watch TV on Sunday.       

 

I live in Alasla.   So I don't go home very often.

 

I did not write my parents a letter on Saturday.   I will email them today.

 

I have class today.                                           Will not DO sports.

 

I do not have a car.                                         I will walk home.

 

That movie is expensive.                                 I didn’t go.

 

I have a lot (たくさん) of homework.             Will be busy tonight.

 

My friend is coming.                              I will clean up the room.

 

I have a kanji quiz tomorrow. Tonight, I will study.

 

 

 

Conjunction けど to link clauses in opposition. In this sense it is much like が but けど tends to sound more colloquial than が and is often used in casual conversation. 

As with からwhen used with verbs, you can use either polite forms ( ーます) or plain (plain, dictionary) forms

 

あまり好きじゃないけど,時々食べます

I don't like it all that much but sometimes I eat it (anyway).

 

 

Contrasting clauses:

 

It was difficult but interesting.

 

It was fun but expensive.

 

I bought a newspaper but I didn’t buy a magazine.

 

I drink tea but I don’t drink coffee.

I don't like coffee very much but sometimes I order a latte.

I don't like fish very much but I often eat sushi.

 

 

I went yesterday but I will not go tomorrow.

 

 

I have a bicycle but I don’t have a car.

 

 

I called my friend but she was not there.

 

 

I read it, but I did not understand it.

 

 

I went to work but I did not do my laundry.

 

 

I went shopping but I did not go to a movie.

 

Tomorrow is vacation but I will go to school.

 

 

 

けど and  が overlap quite a bit but けど is considered more colloquial and conversational.

You can use
けど deferentially, 「私は田中だけど/ですけど。

"My name is Tanaka..."

  Like the が  of contrast, けど connects 2 clauses, and may often translate as BUT

 

ウイラメット大学は 小さいですが/けど、とても いい 大学 ですよ

 

あまりべんきょうしませんでしたが/けど、しけんは やしかったです。

 

I love ice cream but I do not eat it very often.

私は アイスクリームガ大好きだけど、あまり食べないんです。

 

 

More Notes:

(http://www.guidetolearnjapanese.com/2008/04/learn-how-to-connect-japanese-sentences-using-ga-kedo-and-dakara/)

Sometime back ago we learned about the -te て form, which is use to connect or continue sentences, or also known as “and.” Here we are learning more about how to connect Japanese sentences using connective words.

The use of “but,” “because” and “so” will be taken up here. Let’s start with using “but.”

There are 2 ways to express “but” in Japanese. One is ”けど” the other is ”が”. Both can be use to connect to other Japanese sentences. See the two examples below.

くるま が ほしい ですが、 おかね が ありません

I want a car but I don’t have money.

くるま が ほしい ですけど、 おかね が ありません

I want a car but I don’t have money.

It’s quite easy to understand this. Just simply put the が or けど after the sentence, くるま が ほしい です, and then you can continue to state the reason after that. This is very commonly used in the Japanese conversation, so remember this well :)

 

Let’s learn how to use “because” in Japanese. There are 2 ways to say it. Let’s look at the examples

おかね が ありません ので、 くるま が かえません

Because I don’t have money, I can’t buy a car.

おかね が ありません から、 くるま が かえません

Because I don’t have money, I can’t buy a car.

To state reasons, use the ので or から. Just like けど or が , simply add the ので or から after stating your reasons. Japanese tend to express the reasons first before telling the listeners the things they do.