Fall 2013

Poli 388W - AR

Sammy Basu



EAT 311

Democracy and Nazism



SMU 317


What can we learn from the failed Weimar Republic and the consolidation of authoritarianism in the form of the Nazi Third Reich about the constitutive elements of democracy in general at the institutional, cultural, and cognitive levels?  In exploring the historical record, this course considers the nature of political and moral argument in relation to several modes of discourse: philosophy, art, worldview (Weltanschauung), propaganda, ideology, and deception.  In argumentative, ethical, aesthetic, and affective terms, what made agitation for the demise of Weimar democracy persuasive, and conversely, what legitimized participation in the Nazi racial state?  Finally, what insights can we apply to contemporary democratic politics?



Macintosh HD:Users:sbasu:Dropbox:p315ExNzpics:MKEng39.pdf



Student Learning Objectives



To better understand the subfield of political philosophy (Poli)



Writing effectively and persuasively (W)



Understand arguments, evaluate reasons, reflect on values (AR)




Graded Components



Weimar Exam



Final Exam – comprehensive, incl. student presentations



Term Paper



An argumentative paper (25pp) utilizing primary source material and evaluating competing theories to be presented using IT



Participation (incl. discussion leadership)



You should complete assigned Reading before the class.



If you miss class, regardless of the reason, you are required to provide a 250-word summary on the Readings of the day(s) missed.  To be handed in at next class.



Required Texts    



Macintosh HD:private:var:folders:lv:lvCr4pmjERCAGHgDDraeCk+++TM:-Tmp-:com.apple.mail.drag-T0x100520a80.tmp.tDtSGn:9780349118895.jpgMacintosh HD:private:var:folders:lv:lvCr4pmjERCAGHgDDraeCk+++TM:-Tmp-:com.apple.mail.drag-T0x100520a80.tmp.4KOjzF:Sebastian-haffner_book-cover.jpg

Joseph Roth.

What I Saw: Reports from Berlin, 1920-1933.  

[1920-33] (2003)

Sebastian Haffner.

Germany Jekyll & Hyde: A Contemporary Account of Nazi Germany [1939] (2008)



Stephen J. Lee.

The Weimar Republic (2010)

Stephen J. Lee.

Hitler and Nazi Germany (2010)



All additional material will be made available electronically





Honor Code and Plagiarism:





“We will hold ourselves to the highest standards of moral, academic excellence.  We will proudly submit only our original work.  We will never attempt to give ourselves or others an unfair advantage.  We will commit to upholding our honor and the value of our work.  Through this commitment we will serve as an example to our peers.”




Credit Hour Compliance:




Students will spend 2-3 hours on the course, including reading, writing and relevant co-curricular activities for every hour of in-class time.



Disability Accommodation:





Willamette does not discriminate on the basis of disability in any of its programs, services or activities. The school will not deny any otherwise qualified student with a disability the opportunity to participate in, or benefit from, any aid, benefit or service that Willamette provides. Willamette will also strive to accommodate students with disabilities on an individual basis. Willamette will make whatever reasonable accommodations it can to accommodate students with disabilities, unless the accommodations would pose an undue burden to the school.




Religious Accommodation:





Willamette University recognizes the value of religious practice and strives to accommodate students’ commitment to their religious traditions whenever possible. When conflicts between holy days or other religious practice and academic scheduling arise, every effort should be made to allow students to adhere to their tradition, including, when possible, excusing class absences and allowing make-up work. A student anticipating the need to miss a class for religious reasons should alert the faculty member within the first two weeks of the semester, and the two of them should determine the next course of action. Any unresolved difficulty should be referred to the Office of the Chaplains.




Wed 8/28



Introduction and Historiography






Mon 9/2

Labor Day, duh!

Wed 9/4

Intro: Can we Learn from Weimar and Nazi Germany?




Kershaw, Ian. 2004. ‘Hitler and the Uniqueness of Nazism.Journal of Contemporary History 39: 239-254. Or try this




Bookbinder, Paul, ‘Why Study Weimar Germany?’ and Facing History


Fritzsche, Peter. 1996. ‘Nazi Modern.’
 Modernism/modernity 3.1: 1-22.






1. Democratic Revolution and re-Constitution


Hugo Preuss, 1860-1925


Max Weber, 1864-1920

Source Material:

Prussian Constitution (1850)

The Weimar Constitution (1919)

BBC: Weimar Strengths and Weaknesses



Lee, Weimar, ch. 1: The German Revolution, 1918-1919


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 1: eg 1,  eg 2


Thomas Mann, ‘On the German Republic’ (1922), esp pp.  (also in WISE)


Berman, Sheri. 1997. ‘Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.’ World Politics 49,3: 401-429.





Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1859-1941

Macintosh HD:Users:sbasu:Dropbox:p315ExNzpics:Hitler1914.jpgAdolf Hitler in the Odeonsplatz, Munich partaking of the ‘spirit of ‘14’



Mon 9/9

2. War Aftermath: Trauma, Guilt, and Violence



German war dead


Source Material:

BBC: Long-term underlying causes of war, problems 1919-1923, Opinions of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (1919)

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (48min, esp 4:15-10:40, 12:30-13:00)

Versailles and Ruhr: Make Germany Pay 1 and II



Lee, Weimar, ch. 2: Versailles and its impact, 1919-1933 Eg debt. eg 1, eg 2, eg 3

Roth, What I Saw, ch. 20, 29; eg 1 and eg 2


Bessel, R. ‘The Great War in German Memory: The Soldiers of the First World War, Demobilization, and Weimar Political Culture,’ German History, 6.1: 20-34.



Ziemann, Benjamin. 2003. ‘Germany after the First World War – A Violent Society? Results and Implications of Recent Research on Weimar Germany.’ Journal of Modern European History, 1.1: 80-95.






Ebert and NSDAP and KDP


Wed 9/11

3. PR and Multi-Party Politics: KPD, SPD, DDP, Z, DVP, BVP, DNVP, NSDAP


Lucas, Stephen, Jason


Reichstag Party Representation


Source Material:

John Cleese on PR

Political Parties handout

Election footage

Electoral Geography 2.0: Germany

Hannah Hoch’s Cut with a Kitchen Knife I, II, III



Lee, Weimar, ch. 3: The Constitution and the party system, 1919-1933


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 30, 31, 32, 33


Feuchtwanger, Edgar. 1994. ‘The Weimar Republic - A Failure of representative institutions?’ Parliaments, estates and Representation 14.2: 159-170. Get from WISE

Geographic dist of vote





George Grosz, The Eclipse of the Sun, 1926

Howard Streseman



Mon 9/16

4. Authority, Celebrity, and Media


Lauren, Isabel, Paige

Friedrich Ebert, 1871- 1925


Source Material:

The Bathing Suit Controversy

Hindenburg becomes President, 1925/1932, and 1933



Lee, Weimar, ch. 4: Chancellors and Presidents of the Republic, 1919-33


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 21, eg 1 and 2


Ross, Corey. 2006. ‘Mass Politics and the Techniques of Leadership: The Promise and Perils of Propaganda in Weimar Germany.’ German History 24.2:184-211.


Menge, Anna. 2008. ‘The Iron Hindenburg: A Popular Icon of Weimar Germany.’ German History 26.3: 357-382.


Frederick the Great 1712-1786

Otto von Bismarck 1815-1898        Kaiser Wilhelm II            Hindenburg




Hitler et al, Munich Putsch 1923

Wed 9/18

5. Polarization and Putsch



Ludendorff and Hitler, 1923

Erich Ludendorff 1865-1937

Source Material:

BBC: Weimar crisis of 1923

BBC: Nazi beliefs

BBC: The Munich Putsch 1923

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (10:40-12:30, 13:00-18:50, 20:00-20:30)


NSDAP 25 Point Plan (1920)

Inflation (1923)

Munich Beer-Hall Putsch (1923)

Hitler’s Final Trial Speech (27 March, 1924)


Gottfried Feder and Dietrick Eckhart and Anton Drexler


Lee, Weimar, ch. 5: Crisis and Recovery, 1920-23


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10



Orlow, Dietrich O. 1965. ‘The Organizational History and Structure of the NSDAP, 1919-23.’ The Journal of Modern History 37.2:208-226.


Madden, Paul. 1982. ‘Some Social Characteristics of Early Nazi Party Members, 1919-23.’Central European History 15.1:34-56.



Weimar children using banknote bundles as building blocks 1923





George Grosz, The City, 1917

Potsdamerplatz, Berlin



Mon 9/23

6. The Modern German Malaise


Maddie, Matt, jason


Metropolis, 1927


Source Material:

BBC: How did Weimar survive?

Berlin in the 1920s (3.07min)

Towards prosperity and hope (3.40 min)

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (20:30-22:00)


FW Murnau. The Last Laugh // Der letzte Mann (1924) (141min)

Doorman and Democracy.


Lee, Weimar, ch. 6: A period of stability, 1924-29?


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 16, 17, 18, 19


Costigliola, Frank. 1976. ‘The United States and the Reconstruction of Germany in the 1920s.’ The Business History Review, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 477-502.


Jones, Larry Eugene. 1972. ‘"The Dying Middle": Weimar Germany and the Fragmentation of Bourgeois Politics.’ Central European History 5.1:23-54.



The Last Laugh, 1924


scene from Last Laugh




Beckmann, 1919



Wed 9/25

7. Cultural Reactions to the ‘Golden Twenties’


Jullian, will, stephen

Bauhaus 1923

Hitler, Mein Kampf 1926/7


Source Material:


The Culture of the Weimar Republic (3.49 min)

Tour Around Berlin in 1929 (3.28 min)

Understanding Hitler Through Mein Kampf Documentary (2:00-5:30)

Hitler the Artist (3:10)

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (22:00-23:10, 24:30-29:00)



Lee, Weimar, ch. 9: Social and cultural achievements, 1918-33


Roth, What I Saw, ch. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

Roth, What I Saw, ch. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28


Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf : 3-17, 33-44, 53-60, 108, 150-3, 171, 180-1, 248-57-60, 287-99, 311, 316, 320, 327, 330, 337, 342-59, 366-367, 374, 384, 388, 411-18, 451, 466, 479-92, 510, 574-6, 577-83, 591-2, 614-21, 648-658, 701-711, 730-37 – Swastika, 767-72, 795-800, 824-835, 841-67, 886-93, 930, 973, 982, 992 in WISE.



Steinweis, Alan E. 1991. ‘Weimar Culture and the Rise of National Socialism: The Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur.’ Central European History 24.4:  402-423.


Kater, Michael H. 1988. ‘The Jazz Experience in Weimar Germany.’ German History 6.2: 145-158.


Robert Genin (1884-1943)

Otto Dix, ‘Grosstadt triptych,’ 1927



 Siegmund Breitbart, 1883-1925

‘Muscular Judaism’ 1900



Mon 9/30

8. Jews, ‘World-Jewry,’ and ‘the Jew’


Lexi, Elaine, audrey

Max Nordau, 1849-1923



Source Material:

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (23:10-24:30)

Hitler on Jews and Christ (9.07 min)

Joseph Goebbels, Das Buch Isidor (1929) and Bernhard Weiss

Albert Einstein’s Zionism (1931)



Roth, What I Saw, ch. 2, 3, 4, 5, 34


Heilbronner, Oded. 2000. ‘From Antisemitic Peripheries to Antisemitic Centres: The Place of Antisemitism in Modern German History.’ Journal of Contemporary History 35.4: 559-576.


Jewish communities in pre-war Germany

 Walther Rathenau, 1867-1922

LEAD Technologies Inc. V1.01 Julius Streicher, 1885-1946





July 1932

Medieval depiction of ‘ritual murder’



Wed 10/2

9. Christianity and antisemitism


Will, soren, isabel


Martin Luther, 1483-1546


St John Chrysostom, 347-407


Source Material:

Gerhard Hahn, Christuskreuz und Hakenkreuz (1934)



Martin Luther, On the Jews and their lies (1543)

Part I from start to “tomfoolery and trickery”

Part III from ‘blind Jews to mislead you’ to the end of III

Part VI from start to ‘harder than a diamond’

Part VII from ‘Eternal death’ to end of XII

Part VIII from ‘no remission of sin’ to the end of VIII

Part X from start to ‘fifteen hundred years’ and then last three paragraphs

Part XI entire (especially this one)

Part XII first two paragraphs

Part XIII final paragraph

St. John Chrysostom, Eight Homilies against the Jews (386-7)

Homily I from start (‘TODAY I HAD’) to ‘the dwelling of demons’
Homily IV from start (‘AGAIN THE JEWS’) to ‘action good or bad’
And from “But before I draw up’ to ‘Does not the Scripture treat … Jews in this way?’
And ‘Let then my battle with the Jews’ to ‘the Holy Spirit for ever and ever’
Homily V from ‘WE have said enough” to ‘God’s love and kindness’
And from ‘Are you Jews still disputing the question?’ to ‘world without end. Amen.’
Homily VIII from ‘If the devil is a murderer’ to ‘live with a bad conscience?’



Hastings, Derek. 2003. ‘How "Catholic" Was the Early Nazi Movement? Religion, Race, and Culture in Munich, 1919- 1924.’ Central European History, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 383-433.

Probst, Christopher J. 2009. ‘“An incessant army of demons”: Wolf Meyer-Erlach, Luther, and “the Jews” in Nazi Germany.’ Holocaust and Genocide Studies 23.3: 441-460.






Mon 10/7

10. Crises upon Crises


Lauren, Audrey, courtney

Paul von Hindenburg, 1932

Source Material:

BBC: Hitler’s rise to power

BBC: Was Weimar doomed?

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (29:00-43:05) or here and here

The Hitler no one knows (1932)

Election Ballot (1932)

NSDAP Posters pre-1933 - as test of explanations


Unemployment in Germany, 1924-1932




July 31, 1932

October 31, 1932








Lee, Weimar, ch. 10: Crisis and collapse, 1929-1933


Wolfers, Arnold. 1932. ‘The Crisis of the Democratic Régime in Germany.’ International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1931-1939) 11.6:757-782.


Hitler 1932


July 1932





Wed 10/9

11. Democratic Capitulation


Joe, lexi, elaine

LEAD Technologies Inc. V1.01

Alfred Hugenberg 1865-1951

Election results and fire etc (vid, 10min)

In brief

Wels-Hitler 1933

The Enabling Act and vid




Winkler, Heinrich August. 1990. ‘Choosing the Lesser Evil: The German Social Democrats and the Fall of the Weimar Republic.Journal of Contemporary History 25.2/3: 205-227.


Kolb, Eberhard. 1997. ‘Was Hitler’s Seizure of Power on January 30, 1933, Inevitable?’ German Historical Institute 18: 9-23.

Otto Wels 1873-1939


Hitler and Cabinet, 30 Jan 1933

27 Feb 1933

Thu 10/10 630-800

& Sun 10/13 600-7pm – Exam Review Sessions



Mon 10/14

WEIMAR EXAM Exam format, Weimar Summary


1933, election postcard

Day of Potsdam, 21 March 1933



Wed 10/16

Intro: Do Three Reichs make a wrong?




Source Material:

BBC: How Hitler consolidated power 1933-34

BBC: The structures of control in the Nazi state

The Nazis (1997). Episode 1: Helped into Power (4:15-11:00, 43:05-47.45)

Nazi Laughter



Lee, Nazi, ch. 1: The Rise of Nazism

Lee, Nazi, ch. 2: The Achievement & Consolidation of Power 1933-34


Haffner, Germany, Foreward


23 March 1933 Speech’ in Hitler Complete pp275-286 in WISE



1933, Nuremberg Party Rally







Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945

Macintosh HD:Users:sbasu:Dropbox:p315ExNzpics:Hitler1933.jpg

Hitler and NSDAP celebrating victory



Mon 10/21

1. The Hitler State


Maddie, lucas, paige


Hitler with children


Source Material:

Hitler and National Leaders (postcard c.1934), 1933 speech, and 1934 speech (from Triumph)

Germany Awakes (1933), and State Structure

AH: Pictures from the Life of the Fuhrer (1936) and in German

The Nazis (1997). Episode 4: The Wild East (30:45-35:00)



Lee, Nazi, ch. 3: The Nazi Dictatorship


Haffner, Germany, ch. 1: Hitler

Haffner, Germany, ch. 2: The Nazi Leaders


Jacobsen, C., & House, R. J. (2001). Dynamics of charismatic leadership: A process theory, simulation model, and tests. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(1), 75-112.


Kershaw, Ian. 1993. 'Working Towards the Führer.' Reflections on the Nature of the Hitler Dictatorship.Contemporary European History 2.2: 103-118.






Alfred Rosenberg

Rudolf Hess                        Herman Goring                   Reinhard Heydrich









Wed 10/23

2. The Terror State


Joe, Stephen, Matt


Heinrich Himmler


Source Material:

Video: Police State and Why Hitler was feared (5, 3 min)

The Gestapo, Camps are for mules,

BBC: Opposition

Edelweiss Pirates

The White Rose

August Landmesser

Concentration Camps



Lee, Nazi, ch. 5: The SS and the Gestapo

Lee, Nazi, ch. 6: Support, Opposition & Resistance


Haffner, Germany, ch. 5: The Disloyal Population

Haffner, Germany, ch. 6: The Opposition



Gellately, Robert. 1991. ‘Rethinking the Nazi Terror System: A Historiographical Analysis.’ German Studies Review 14.1: 23-38.



Nazi uniforms

risoners during Roll Call at the Oranienburg

Oranienburg, roll-call, 1 April 1933



Goebbels addressing crowd



Mon 10/28

3. The Brainwashed State


Jullian, matt, lucas




Source Material:

Bytwerk archive on Nazi Propaganda 1933-1945

Nazi Posters (1933-1945)

US Holocaust Memorial Museum on Propaganda

The Power of Nazi Propaganda (5.46 min)



Lee, Nazi, ch. 4: Indoctrination and Propaganda


Haffner, Germany, ch. 3: The Nazis

Haffner, Germany, ch. 4: The Loyal Population


Welch, David. 2004. ‘Nazi Propaganda and the Volksgemeinschaft: Constructing a People’s Community.’ Journal of Contemporary History 39.2: 213-238.

Joseph Goebbels


     Robert Ley (1890-1945)             Max Amann (1891-1957)       Baldur von Schirach (1907-1974)







Nazi Plan for Munich

Speer with Hitler



Wed 10/30

4. The Beautiful State


Joe, lexi, elaine


Richard Wagner 1813-1883


Source Material:

Wagner, The Mastersingers of Nuremberg (1933)

Bayreuth and Max Lorenz (1930s) or here full

Bayreuth (1943)

Berlin (1936, 1.44min)


Nuremberg Party Rallies


The Triumph of the Will (1935, 144 min)

Closing speech (1935, 9.00min)

Leni Riefenstahl 1902-2003 Albert Speer 1905-1981


Degenerate Art Show, 1937

Great German Art Exhib 1937

The ‘Degenerate’ Art Show (1937) and 4 Nov 2013

Nazi architecture

For amusement (4:00min)



The Degenerate Art Show Brochure (1937)

Get ‘DegenerateArt_49-79%2C356-390.pdf’ from WISE

Also get ‘Barron1’ from WISE

Werckmeister, O. K. 1997. ‘Hitler the Artist.’ Critical Inquiry 23.2: 270-97.

Basu, Sammy. 2012. ‘’He Laughs Loudly,’ Hitler, Nazism, and Wagner’s Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg,’ in History 1933-1948: What We Choose to Remember. Pp. 357-86.




Mon 11/4

5. The Happy State


Jason, Isabel, audrey



Source Material:

BBC: Economic policies and benefits

Nazi economic success (1936)

German house (1937)

The volkswagen (1938)

Family Magazine (1939)

A Beautiful World (2.20min)



Lee, Nazi, ch. 7: The Nazi Economy


Imhoof, David. 2009. ‘The Game of Political Change: Sports in Göttingen during the Weimar and Nazi Eras.’ German History 27.1: 374-94.


König, Wolfgang. 2004. ‘Adolf Hitler vs. Henry Ford: The Volkswagen, the Role of America as a Model, and the Failure of a Nazi Consumer Society.’ German Studies Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 249-268.










Wed 11/6

6. The Pure State (Greater Germany and then Europe)


Maddie, matt


Source Material:

BBC: Women in the Nazi State and Persecution

Nazi antisemitic propaganda (1933-1945), The Nazi Anatomists

The Nazis (1997). Episode 4: The Wild East (3:40-11:45, 35:00-47:20)

The Nazi Woman (1.20)



Lee, Nazi, ch. 8: Outside the Volksgemeinschaft


Goebbels, Joseph. 1934 ‘German Women

Erna Günther. 1934. ‘We women in the Struggle for Germany’s Renewal.’

Wagner, Gerhard. 1936. ‘Race and Population Policy

H. Rodenfels. 1939. ‘Women who may not be allowed to become Mothers.’


Rupp, Leila J. 1977. ‘Mother of the "Volk": The Image of Women in Nazi Ideology.’ Signs 3.2:362-379.






Macintosh HD:Users:sbasu:Dropbox:p315ExNzpics:CCamp.jpg



Mon 11/11

7. The Antisemitic State and the Holocaust


Lauren, Courtney, paige




‘Die herrlichsten Grüße von der Austellung sendet Euch Lenni’ [Sending you magnificent greetings from the exhibition Lenni]

Leading Figures of the System’ (1936)

Museum Exhibit: The Eternal Jew (1937) and Book: The Eternal Jew (1937) also

The Evian Conference (1938, July)

Kristallnacht (1938, Nov 9)

Film: Der Ewige Jude (1940, The Eternal Jew) (65 min), Stills: Der Ewige Jude

Holocaust education: site and in general

The Nazis (1997). Episode 5: The Road to Treblinka (48min)

Anne Frank Timeline (1945)

Also Camp System and Example



Kurt Hilmar Eitzen, “Ten Responses to Jewish Lackeys [Zehn Knüppel wider die Judenknechte]” Unser Wille und Weg (6) 1936, pp. 309-310

Hornshoj-Moller, Stig on Der Ewige Jude

Nazi Review of Der Ewige Jude


Herf, Jeffrey. 2005. ‘The “Jewish War”: Goebbels and the Antisemitic Campaigns of the Nazi.Holocaust Genocide Studies 19.1: 51-80.


Steiner, John M. 2000. ‘The role margin as the site for moral and social intelligence” The case of Germany and National Socialism.’ Crime, Law & Social Change, 34:61-75.




Wed 11/13

NO CLASS – Work on termpaper





Mon 11/18

8. The War (to the Death) State


Jullian, will, soren


Source Material:

BBC: Hitler’s aims and actions

BBC: Who was to blame

Nazi war propaganda (1939-1945).

Nazi war art (1940-1944)

The Nazis (1997). Episode 6: Fighting to the End (48min)

Here is Germany (7.52 min)



Lee, Nazi, ch. 9: Foreign Policy

Lee, Nazi, ch. 10: Germany at War


Schuman, Frederick L. 1934. The Third Reich's Road to War. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 175, The Shadow of War (Sep., 1934), pp. 33-43.








 urope in April 1944




Wed 11/20 



Lindenfeld, David F. 1997. ‘The Prevalence of Irrational Thinking in the Third Reich: Notes toward the Reconstruction of Modern Value Rationality.’ Central European History 30.3: 365-385.


Page, James S. 2008. Deconstructing the Enduring Appeal of the Third Reich. Journal of Intercultural Studies 29.2: 189-196.







 Using Information Technology


Google docs














Student Presentations



No Class – ongoing meetings with professor on paper





1. Soren

Kant and Nazism: The categorical betrayal of humanity



2. Lexi

Rejection Generates Love: The youth movement in Weimar Germany



3. Will


Democracy and the military: is a strong military an asset or a hindrance?



4. Jullian

Colonial Conquering: The Nazi invasion of Eastern Europe



5. Paige

Blood or Soil? Exploring the motivations behind the environmental policy in the Nazi Third Reich



12/2, Monday


1. Audrey


Youth in the Weimar Republic

2. Courtney


Nazi Body Language

3. Isabel


Why can’t we be friends? Nazi foreign policy towards Russia

4. Elaine


Hitler’s rhetorical efficacy

5. Jason


Was Nazism a Technologically Modern Movement?



12/4, Wednesday


1. Stephen


Cosmopolitanism and Democracy

2. Matt


Was Nazism Religious?

3. Joe


Appeasing Nazi Germany Leading up to WWII

4. Lauren


Hitler’s Split Image of America

5. Lucas


Christianity and Nazism: A Sinister Manipulation?

6. Maddie


How to get away with murder: women as monsters in the Third Reich



12/7 Saturday, 10-12, WLT 235

Final Exam Review




Mon 12/9 2-5pm