POLI305: Modern Political Theory Part 1

Locate, and explain the specific conceptual and argumentative content of,

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MODERN VALUES:

low    

med

high

LIBERTY

(freedom,

self-

determination)

 

 

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negative liberty, ie.

freedom from x

 

 

 

F from ‘every feeling of ressentiment’ (37 / 80, 81)

From sin (48 / )

From every sort of conviction’ (53 / )

keep the height of your task free from the many lower and short-sighted impulses’ ( / 79, )

 

positive liberty, ie.

freedom to do y,

eg. to be happy,

moral, fulfill roles etc

Critic of false idols and idealism

 

Be a ‘philosopher’, ‘psychologist’, ‘hyperborean’

Be idiot (27 / )

Be infantile (29 / )

N’s ‘Style’ is to knock down idols not set up new ones ( / 71)

‘Find yourself’ ( /73)

accept yourself as fate, not to want to ‘change’ yourself’ ( / 82, 97, )

overman is an anti-ideal and not some Darwinian half-saint, half-genius ( / 101, 114, 130, 147 / 211, 218 )

experimenters’ ( / 104, )

have ‘eternal joy’ ( / 110)

free spirit’ ( / 116)

[but idealism creeps in]

thirst to experience the whole range of previous values and aspirations’ ( / 125,)

to play naively is great seriousness’ ( / 126, )

sense of humor, saying the somber through the laughable’ (  / 138, 143 / 161 )

be a ‘buffoon’ ( / 144)

cheerfulness’ ( // 155, 188, 198)

having the will to be responsible for yourself ‘ ( // 213)

distance and indifference to petty or escapist  concepts of happiness

 

 

 

 

EQUALITY

(equity,

fairness,

justice)          

 

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socio-political equality of status

as subjects

as citizens    

as humans  

Critic of equality of recognition that stems from sameness or requires conformism, incl Christian ‘poisonous doctrine’ of ‘equal rights for everyone’ (40, 45, 60 / 80, 105 / 212 )

Women – ‘weak-willed person’ (54), shallow ( / 141 /  159)

Hates own mother and esp sister ( / 77, )

Cosima Wagner – noble ( / 78, 90)

Lou von Salome ( / 124, )

Love/hate ( / 102, 105 )

Feminism is lack of necessary daring ( / 103 )

Marriage should reflect sex and property drives ( // 215 )

equality among enemies’ ( / 82, )

Writing for the few or provocatively in order to goad everyone into wanting to be worthy to be part of the elite few? (3 / 71-2, 100, 104 / 169 )

All texts after BGE were ‘fish-hooks’ ( / 134,)

Admires Jesus for affirming ‘everyone is equal to everyone else’ (26, 37 / )

disgust with people’ is real danger in his thinking ( / 83, 148 )

political equality

Against ‘democratism’ which is Christian and decadent (50 / / 214)

Eq makes flat and mediocre ( // 221-2

 

Sick politics undermines ‘aristocraticism’ (40 / )

legal equality

equality under the law

equal protection

 

a right is a privilege. Everyone finds his privilege in his own type of being’ (59 / )

 

economic equality

socialist rabble’ (60 / )

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRATERNITY

(solidarity,

community)

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independence interdependence intersubjectivity

Linguistic and communicative intersubjectivity is the obstacle to personal authenticity and value ( // 169, 205 )

Whence arrows and epigrams ( // 156, 223-4 )

self does need agonistic interactions with the Other to know self better; made stronger ( / 77, 82 / 157, 173)

respect and distance’ (40 / 79, 142 / 212)

always in his own company’ ( / 77, )

rudeness is ‘humane’ form of contradicting ( / 80,)

solitude’ ( / 83, )

rigorous selfishness’ ( / 96-7, 149)

 

 

BASIC QUESTIONS

Answered by

The most problematic politico-philosophical schools are ...

 

 

Appolonian, Rationalist, Idealist (8 / 89, ), Christian, Nihilist.

Theologians and most other philosophers (7, 23 // 226 )

Luther (65 / ), Kant (9-10 / ) ‘idiot’, Schopenhauer (7 / )

Jews – chose instinct of survival at all costs and hence falsify nature (20-1, 42 / ) yet N is critic of anti-Semites (55 / 139)

Socrates, and Plato ( / 75, 108-9f, / 162-6 / 225-6 )

 

Positive Models: rare sceptics (10 /  90) and realists are Montaigne ( / 90), Machiavelli ( // 225), Renaissance generally (64 / / 211 ), also early Romans (61 / ), Buddhism (16, 19 / 81 )

Jesus as ‘holy anarchist’ (25 / ) and rebel etc (29 / )

Zarathustra as sceptic (53 / 73, 129, 145-7), Epicurus (61 / )

Richard Wagner qua aesthetic revolutionary until he became a German nationalist ( / 93-4, 107, 110-1, 117, 118, 138,  )

Voltaire ( / 116) Emerson ( // 198 ) Goethe ( // 222-3)

Heraclitus, multiplicity, change, senses show constant flux ( // 167)

 

We can best know what we know by ...

 

 

 

Be open to all sources and perspectives including our own embodied experiences and inner sources such as especially instincts.

Embracing the opposite of whatever the theologian says (8 / )

Observing by ‘inner lights’ or more so ‘inner realities’ ala Jesus (30, 31 / )

Everything else is ‘sign’ reflected in ‘parable’ (31 / ) ie human, social construction

Being aware of devious role of instincts (for power over others) behind claims to know (35, 39 / )

Following pleasure or maybe not (49 / )

Doing ‘philology’ – ‘in a very general sense, as the art of reading well, - to be able to read facts without falsifying them through interpretations, without letting the desire to understand make you lose caution, patience, subtlety’ (51 / )

Looking for the convictions/lies (55-6 / ), not believing appeals to divine origin (58 / ), seeing the reasons or motives for moralizing ( / 72, 149 / 179)

Perspectivalism – ‘switching perspectives’ ( / 76 )

instinctively gathers his totality from everything he sees, hears, experiences’ ( / 77)

curiosity, high spirits’ ( / 85, )

cynicism’ ( / 103, )

experiments’ ( / 104, )

viewing world in terms of ‘eternal return’ ( / 110, 123, )

give up pedantry and false modesty of philology for physiology, medicine, natural sciences ( / 118 / 168)

taking seriously one’s involuntary inspiration/revelation ( / 126-7)

genealogy’ (  / 135,)

pose questions with a hammer’ ‘to sound out idols’ ( // 155)

being open to ‘anything novel, alien or previously unencountered’ as possible cause ( // 180)

 

What is essential to human beings is ...

 

 

 

Embodied particularity – mind and body (sense, nervous system, intestines, etc), health, climate (12 / 76, 86-7, 95, 125, 150 )

‘Will to power’ (4 / ), ‘instinct for growth’ (6 / )

Will to knowledge, will to system ( // 159)

Also

Instinct of hatred for reality (27 / )

To be part of the Existence of the whole without ordained purposes or ideals ( // 182)

 

Ethics is best

determined through ...

 

 

 

‘Whatever enhances people’s feeling of power’ (4 / )

whatever satisfies pleasure, inner need (10 / ), ‘inner lights’ ala Jesus (30 / )

opposite of weakness, pity (6 / 79,  ) but also of revenge, aversion, ressentiment (17 / ) and of ‘Christian cruelty to self and others’ (18 / ), being parasitic (23 / )

revaluation of all values’ (11, 66 / 121, 144 / 155)

being ‘masculine’

virtu, virtuoso not virtuous ( / 85, )

beyond good and evil’ (16 / ), being nonjudgmental (41, 43 / )

be grateful for what is

eternal yes’ (16 / 131 ), ‘glad tidings’ (29 / 137, ),  ‘yes to life’ ( / 109 / 228 )

amor fati’ - love fate, chance made innocent (22 / 143, )

art of style’ that is multiple, multifarious and expressive is good ( / 104, )

timid caution’ towards everything about morality ( / 120,)

an affirmation and trust in everything that had been forbidden, despised, cursed until now’ ( / 121)

we who are different, we immoralists, have opened our hearts to all types of understanding, comprehension, approval. We do not negate easily, we stake our honor on being affirmative” ( // 175)

 

Being communal/self-sacrificing is ...

Repugnant unless you freely chose what is at stake.

What martyrs do and they prove nothing by doing it (52 / )

The optimal polity is ...

 

 

 

Ala Buddhism  - ‘no compulsion in any form’ (17 / ), ‘cheerfulness, quiet, and an absence of desire’

Meritocratic – higher classes who achieve themselves not push others to chase ideals

Hierarchic, Aristocratic. ( // 214)

Open to different forms of life.

Kingdom of God everywhere and nowhere (32 / ) but not elsewhere

Without providential or busybody God (52 / )

Hindu Book of Manu and caste-system is better (56f / / 184)

‘Rank order of abilities; distance; the art of separating without antagonizing; not mixing anything, not ‘reconciling’ anything; an incredible multiplicity that is nonetheless the converse of chaos” ( / 97, )

Dionysian ( / 71, 108, 129 / 170, 196, 227-9 )

lavish profusion of forms in change and at play’ ( // 175)

educated educators ( // 189-90)

 

Political violence or revolution is ...

 

 

 

War ( // 155 ) seemingly affirmed but probably not in the physical or literal sense.

Probably wrongly motivated.  Whence crusades were just ‘piracy’ (63 / ), and nationalism, esp german nationalism banal ( / 139-40 / 186)

However waging intellectual or cultural war is vital (8 // 155 )

War – 1. Attack winners, 2. Without allies, 3. Never people, 4. Not out of bad experiences ( / 82-3)

But does also talk riskily about ‘assassination’ and ‘extermination of everything degenerate and parasitical’ ( / 110)

a terrible explosive that is a danger to everything’ ‘dynamite’ ( / 115, 144, 144 / 217)

hardness of a hammer’ ( / 134,)

 

The challenge facing Modernity is ...            

 

 

 

The overt and secular (‘underhanded’ 9) residues of moralistic and judgmental Christianity, especially in its Pauline (38, 62 / ), Augustinian (63 / ), Protestant and Lutheran forms, which when they are overcome leave people either bored and prone to fall nihilistically into the existential abyss of meaninglessness or fleeing into false forms of meaning such as nationalism, consumerism etc.

‘Nihilism’ (6 / ), ‘Illness’, ‘laziness’(4 / ), ‘decadence’ (6 / / 214f)

False ‘Progress’ (5 // 221 )

We moderns know god is dead yet still act under the old patterns and restraints (34 / )

‘The earth as one big insane asylum’ (49 / )