University Policies

Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Drug-Free Schools and Community Act Amendments

Willamette University abides by the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments of 1989, Public Law 101-226, as a condition of receiving funds or any other form of financial assistance under any federal program, to certify that it has adopted and implemented a program to prevent the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol by students and employees. At a minimum, the University must annually distribute the following to each student and employee:

  • Standards of Conduct that clearly prohibit, at a minimum, the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of drugs and alcohol by students and employees on University property or as any part of University activities;
  • A description of the applicable legal sanctions under local, State, and Federal law for unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol;
  • A description of the health risks associated with the use of illicit drugs and the abuse of alcohol;
  • A description of any drug and alcohol counseling, treatment, or rehabilitation programs that are available to students and employees; and
  • A clear statement that the University will impose sanctions on students and employees (consistent with local, State, and Federal law) and a description of these sanctions, up to and including expulsion or termination of employment and referral for prosecution for violations of the Standards of Conduct.

Alcohol and Drugs: An Informational Guide

The use of mood-altering chemicals is common in our society. Willamette University takes seriously its responsibility to educate and inform members of its community – students, faculty and staff – about the hazards of chemical use. The following text describes various drugs of abuse, hazards and short and long-term effects. For further information, you may wish to check out the web site at: www.drugfreeamerica.org. For further information, contact the staff of the Bishop Wellness Center or any of the resources listed below.
  1. Self-Help Groups

    Thefollowing resources can be of help to people with substance abuse problems or
    to their friends and family. In Salem, call these self-help groups:

    • Alcoholics Anonymous ........................................................................ 503-399-0599
    • Alcohol Abuse 24 Hour Assistance and Treatment ............................. 1-800-234-1253
    • Alcohol & Drug Helpline/Youthline .................................................... 1-800-923-HELP
    • Alanon/Alateen (for friends, family) ................................................... 503-370-7363
    • Cocaine Anonymous ............................................................................ 503-662-2463
    • Substance Abuse Helpline ................................................................... 1-800-888-9383
    • Narcotics Anonymous ......................................................................... 503-990-0861
    • Crisis Hotline-NW Human Services ................................................... 503-581-5535 or 800-560-5535
    • TDD .................................................................................................... 503-588-5833
  2. Outpatient Treatment
    • Bishop Wellness Center Health Services (for students) ...................... x6062
    • Counseling Services (for students) ...................................................... x6471
    • Employee Assistance Program, Cascade Centers, Inc.......................... 503-588-0777
    • (for Willamette University employees) ............................................... 1-800-433-2320
    • Creekside Counseling (in Salem)......................................................... 503-371-4160
  3. Inpatient Treatment
    • Pacific Recovery, Inc. (Dana Point, CA)............................................. 800-793-5596
    • Pacific Ridge (Jefferson, OR).............................................................. 503-361-7758
    • Serenity Lane (Salem, OR)........... ...................................................... 503-588-2804
    • Serenity Lane (Eugene, OR)................................................................ 1-800-453-9905
    • Sundown Ranch (near Yakima, WA) ................................................. 1-800-326-7444
  4. Where to go for help

    Students

    If you believe that you, a friend, or a family member is harmfully involved with alcohol or other drugs, seek help. There are resources available. Willamette University offers no-cost professional assessment, counseling and referral services to all students. There is an on-campus group for Adult Children of Alcoholics, an abstinence support group, and members of Alcoholics Anonymous willing to talk with you. We can work with you to find appropriate treatment services in Salem or in your hometown, if you prefer.

    Counseling Services is located in the Bishop Wellness Center, South side of the Baxter Complex, and is open Monday through Friday, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. Students may call 503-370-6471 for an appointment. Indicate if it is urgent and you will be seen immediately. In case of an after hours emergency, contact your Resident Assistant for immediate help. Counseling staff will be contacted. Senior Residence Life staff are also available 24 hours a day in case of an emergency.

    In an after-hours emergency, call Campus Safety, 503-370-6911, or go directly to Salem Hospital, 890 Oak Street SE (phone 503-5200 or 503-814-1572). If someone needs medical help immediately, call 911.

    Employees

    For employees, the University provides counseling and referral services through Cascade Counseling Center. This is a completely confidential service. An employee or family member can call directly for an appointment, 503-588-0777. In case of an after-hours emergency, call 1-800-826-9231.

Index

Type of Drug Classification
Alcohol depressant
Amphetamine stimulant
Cocaine stimulant
Codeine narcotic
Dalmane narcotic
Demoral narcotic
Dextroamphetamine stimulant

Ecstasy/MDMA

(3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

stimulant
Heroin narcotic
Librium depressant (barbiturate/sedative)
Lysergic Acid Diethylam (LSD) hallucinogen
Marijuana hallucinogen
Mescaline hallucinogen
Methamphetamine stimulant
Morphine narcotic
Mushrooms hallucinogen
Peyote hallucinogen
Psilocybin hallucinogen
Rohypnol depressant (barbiturate/sedative)
Valium depressant (barbiturate/sedative)
Xanax depressant (barbiturate/sedative)

A significant risk of all drug and alcohol use is accidental injury. Alcohol or drug use impairs perception and motor coordination. Driving and operating motorized equipment under the influence of drugs and alcohol is the leading cause of accidents and Emergency Room admissions in all age groups. Purity of street drugs is always suspect as drugs are almost always cut with other substances, including rat poison and baking soda.

  1. Depressants

    Barbiturates, sedatives and alcohol are central nervous system depressants. There are over 2500 different forms of barbiturates. Barbiturates and sedatives have long been used for medical reasons. The medical use ranges from treatment of migraine headaches, peptic ulcers and as an anticonvulsant. Method of administration is oral, intravenous or intramuscular. Examples: Valium, Librium, Xanax, Rohypnol.

    Psychological effects

    • Calming effects ranging from less tension and anxiety to the euphoria of a “high”
    • Hypnotizing effect, which impairs judgment
    • Sense of “no worry”
    • Disinhibition

    With the progression of use there are increased mood swings, depression, irritability, manipulation, abusive behavior and drug-seeking behavior.

    Physical effects

    Short term:

    • Calm anxiety
    • Relax muscles
    • Induce sleep
    • Affect brain stem-inducing sleep
    • Speech and movement
    • Affect brain stem, including heart and lungs
    • Tolerance (develops quickly)

    Long term:

    • Cardiovascular: bradycardia, hypertension
    • Digestive: nausea, vomiting and constipation
    • Nervous: agitation, confusion, ataxia, nightmares and nervousness
    • Reproductive: fetal abnormalities, infant will experience withdrawal symptoms
    • Respiratory: hypoventilation, apnea
    • Other: liver damage, anemia

    Psychological and physical dependence and addiction

    High potential for both

    When combined with alcohol, there is a high potential for toxic overdose and death because the combined effect is stronger than either alone.

  2. Alcohol

    Alcohol is the oldest and most commonly used central nervous system depressant. Within the last month approximately 98 million Americans consumed some form of alcoholic beverage. About 5,000,000 college students also had a drink, as did approximately one half of the 2,500,000 high school students. Last week 1,500,000 college students had 5 or more drinks during one sitting. Yesterday about $200,000,000 was spent on alcoholic beverages.

    Psychological effects

    Alcohol affects the body and mind upon consumption. Effects include:

    • Euphoria
    • Increased risk-taking behavior
    • Aggressive humor/behavior
    • Feeling of decreased inhibitions
    • Delusion
    • Denial
    • Tolerance
    • Blackouts (amnesiac state during which individual appears to be functioning with awareness, but has no memory of any events at a later time)

    Tolerance, blackouts and morning tremors are signs of the development of physical dependency.

    Physical effects

    Short term:

    • Alteration of perception
    • Feelings of no fear
    • Sleepiness
    • Increased urine output
    • Elevated heart rate
    • Lowered motor coordination

    High levels can cause coma and death.

    Long term:

    • Mouth oral lesions run the risk of becoming cancerous
    • Deterioration of the stomach lining, can cause hemorrhage and ulceration
    • Kidney: inflammation and possibility of waste accumulating in the body
    • Increased risk of high blood pressure, strokes and arteriosclerosis
    • Calcium depletion causing brittle bones and increased fractures and back pain
    • Loss of muscle tone
    • Hormonal changes

    Psychological and physical dependence/addiction

    When combined with sedatives or narcotics, there is a high potential for toxic overdose and death because the combined effect is stronger than either alone.

  3. Rohypnol

    A sedative (related to benzodiazepines, i.e., Valium, Xanax) that is legal in Europe but not in the United States. Its legal use is for sleep disorders and as an anesthetic. It is known currently for its abuse as a drug used to rape, because the victims are quickly incapacitated and have impaired memory. In these instances, it has been put into the drink of the intended victim. It is also taken intentionally for the sedating effects. Street names are Rophies, LaRoche.

    Physical effects

    Same as other sedatives, but impaired memory, especially when used with alcohol, is severe, and may last 8-24 hours.

    Physical dependence and addiction

    High potential. When combined with alcohol, there is a high potential for toxic overdose and death.

    Psychological dependence

    Moderate to high dependence potential.

  4. Hallucinogens

    The only approved medical use of hallucinogens was as an anesthetic. The medical use of PCP was discontinued due to the hallucinogenic side effects. Native Americans use the hallucinogens, peyote and mescaline, during religious ceremonies. Examples: LSD, mushrooms, psilocybin, PCP.

    General symptoms of users

    • Trance-like states
    • Confusion
    • Hallucinations
    • Euphoria
    • Depression
    • Dilated pupils
    • Increased pulse
    • Incoordination
    • Labile mood
    • Time/space distortion

    Psychological effects

    • Distortions in perceptions
    • Euphoria
    • Disturbed judgment
    • Impaired short term memory
    • Depression

    Physical effects

    • Increased pulse
    • Withdrawal
    • Tolerance

    Severe adverse effects

    • Anxiety reaction
    • Flashbacks
    • Accidents
    • Schizophrenia-like episode; sometimes long-lasting and difficult to treat
    • Irrational acts done while under the influence

    Physical dependence and addiction

    None or low potential

    Psychological dependence

    Low to moderate potential

  5. Marijuana

    The psychoactive components of marijuana are actually hallucinogens; the difference lies in their effective dose. Cannabis is less potent and must be taken in very large doses to obtain all the effects caused by the other hallucinogens. Method of ingestion is smoking or eating.

    Psychological effects

    • Mild euphoria
    • Decreased inhibitions
    • Depression
    • Acute panic reactions
    • Toxic psychosis
    • Amotivational syndrome

    Neurological effects

    • Incoordination
    • Involuntary movements
    • Tremors
    • Headaches
    • Light sensitivity
    • Short-term memory impairment
    • Numbness Mild slowing in alpha-wave frequency
    • Dizziness
    • Increase in stage 4 sleep and decrease in REM sleep

    Physical effects

    • Disruption of menstrual cycle
    • Possible infertility or difficulty with conception
    • Long-term use may result in birth defects similar to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Lowering of body temperature (compounding problem of infectious disease)

    Physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    Low to moderate potential. (Withdrawal effects reported. Moderate to high potential for psychological dependence.)

  6. Narcotics

    Narcotics vary in potency, speed by which effects are produced, the degree to which they are effective, and the duration of action. They are unique in their ability to reduce or eliminate severe physical pain, which is their major medical use. Ingested by smoking, orally or intravenously. Examples: morphine, codeine, dalmane, demoral, heroin (see below).

    Psychological effects

    • Euphoria

    Physical effects

    • Drowsiness
    • Lethargy
    • Slurred speech
    • Bobbing head
    • Constipation
    • Flushing skin, face, neck, chest, pupils
    • Nausea Rapid tolerance

    High and rapid physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    High potential for both. When combined with sedatives or alcohol, there is a high potential for toxic overdose and death because the combined effect is stronger than either alone.

  7. Heroin

    Heroin is a highly addictive drug derived from morphine, which is obtained from the opium poppy. It is a “downer” that affects the brain‟s pleasure systems and interferes with the brain‟s ability to perceive pain.

    Psychological effects

    • Euphoria
    • Clouded mental functioning

    Physical effects

    Short term:

    • Flushing of the skin
    • Heavy extremities
    • Dry mouth
    • Alternating wakeful/drowsy
    • Slowed, slurred speech
    • Constricted pupils
    • Slow gait
    • Vomiting
    • Constipation

    Long term:

    • Collapsed veins
    • Infection of the heart lining/valves
    • Abscesses
    • Cellulite
    • Liver disease

    Physical dependence and addiction

    Highly addictive – with regular use, tolerance develops and the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same effect

  8. Steroids

    These are psychoactive chemicals made of male hormones.

    Effects

    • Elevated mood
    • Aggressiveness, rage
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Paranoia
    • Liver cancer
    • Females – increase in body hair, lowered voice
    • Males – testicular atrophy

    High risk of injury because muscle mass is all that increases; tendon strength remains the same.

    Physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    High potential

  9. Stimulants

    Synthetic CNS stimulants consist of amphetamines, methamphetamines, Ecstasy and dextroamphetamine. These include diet pills, Cylert, Ritalin and Preludin.

    Natural CNS stimulants are caffeine:

    • Chocolate
    • Coffee
    • Colas
    • No Doz, Alert, Vivarin Tea
    • Chai

    Nicotine:

    • Chewing tobacco
    • Cigarettes, cigars
    • Pipe tobacco
    • Snuff

    (Cocaine is the best known CNS stimulant and will be addressed below.)

    Methods of administration are drinking, snorting, injecting and smoking.

    Psychological effects

    • Anxiety
    • Irritability
    • Insomnia
    • Loss of appetite
    • Paranoia
    • Excitability
    • Toxic psychosis

    Physical effects

    • Increased motor activity
    • Increased and rapid speech
    • Dilated pupils
    • Dry mouth
    • Tolerance develops quickly

    Physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    High potential for both

  10. Cocaine

    Cocaine is sometimes cut with amphetamine or local anesthetics such as benzocaine or lidocaine. It is also sometimes mixed with heroin to intensify effects; this is called “speedballing.” The reactions to cocaine and route of ingestion are similar to other CNS stimulants.

    Chronic high dose use:

    • Hyperstimulation
    • Intense paranoia
    • Headaches
    • Auditory and visual hallucinations
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nosebleeds
    • Irregular heart beat
    • Seizures/convulsions
    • Shortness of breath
    • Intense anxiety and depression
    • Cardiac arrest

    These reactions can occur the second or third time a person uses cocaine. Some individuals are highly sensitive to cocaine.

    Physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    High potential for both

  11. MDMA-Ecstasy (3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

    This amphetamine-like drug is an analogue of MDA. Street names include MDMA, MDA, Adam, Ecstasy and XTC. It produces LSD effects (minus the hallucinations) such as increased self-awareness, removes communication barriers and seems to remove fear response. Synthesized about 70 years ago for use as an appetite suppressant, Ecstasy is now sold in tablets and capsules. The effects last about six hours. Recent studies suggest usage of this drug may have long-term damaging effects on the brain.

    Physical effects

    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Irregular heart beat

    Psychological effects

    • Panic attacks
    • Anxiety
    • Sleep disorders
    • Drug craving
    • Rebound depression
  12. Methamphetamine

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a synthetic drug manufactured in clandestine labs, and is categorized as a central nervous system stimulant. It is known as “speed” or “crystal” when it is swallowed or sniffed; as “crank” when it is injected; and as “ice” when it is smoked. All forms are extremely dangerous and induce long-lasting, debilitating effects.

    Physical effects

    • Increased blood pressure
    • Increased pulse/heart beat
    • Increased respiration
    • Sweating
    • Dry mouth

    Psychological effects

    • Mental confusion
    • Severe anxiety
    • Paranoia
    • Potential for violent behavior
    • Depression

    Physical and psychological dependence and addiction

    High potential for both

What Is Dependence?

Dependence results from continued, prolonged use of alcohol and/or other mood-altering drugs. Genetic predisposition is an additional risk factor.

Experimentation: learning the mood swing

  • Use of a mind-altering chemical two-three times.

Social use: seeking the mood swing

  • One knows the effect of the chemical and uses to feel the related effect.
  • Use of chemical with others and/or at social events.
  • Controlled use of mind-altering chemical.
  • Chemical use does not interfere in any aspect of one‟s life.
  • Chemical use does not interfere with relationships.
  • Chemical use is open.

Abuse: harmful use

  • Socializing is increasingly focused on the chemical of choice being available.
  • Chemical abuse is interfering with many aspects of a person‟s life.
  • Use is interfering with relationships (people are voicing concern about use).
  • Chemical user is hiding his/her use, minimizing amount and time spent using.
  • Thinking errors are being employed to continue one‟s use (justifying, rationalizing, minimizing, denial of level of use and its consequences).
  • Chemical user is developing self-made contracts (i.e., “I will only use on weekends”).
  • Positive social activities are being discontinued.
  • Tolerance and preoccupation are occurring.

Dependence: using to feel normal

  • Failing self-made promises to reduce or quit use.
  • Social activities are replaced or consumed with chemical use.
  • Use is interfering with relationships and major areas of life (school, work, etc).
  • Chemical use is occurring when one is alone and prior to attending social events.
  • Tolerance, physical and/or psychological dependence exists.